What is the Hot Foot Bath?
The hot foot bath (HFB) consists of placing the feet in hot water (starting at 100 to 104 degrees F) and applying a cold compress to the head for 15-20 minutes. It is given at temperatures ranging from 100 to 115 degrees F. This treatment can be given with the patient sitting in a chair or lying down. Either way, you need to protect the mattress or floor with a plastic sheet.
This treatment helps to balance circulation and decrease congestion in the head, lungs, pelvic organs, and internal organs. The treatment acts as a derivative. A derivative effect happens when heat is applied to a large area of skin and its effect is to draw blood away from a distant internal organ. A HFB draws congested blood away from the brain, lungs, and pelvis. If prolonged, it can elevate the body’s temperature which will increase the mobility of white blood cells. For that purpose, you would want to cover and tuck in a blanket around the patient so that body heat will not be lost.
Indications for a HFB:
Generally, a HFB helps to relieve congestive headaches, chest congestion, pelvic congestion, stop a nosebleed, aid relaxation and comfort, abort or shorten a common cold, influenza, and painful menstruation.1 The HFB is useful for osteoarthritis in the feet if there is no pronounced swelling. We have found at our Lifestyle Center that the hot footbath, when combined with a fomentation to the kidneys, reduces elevated blood pressure.
Benefits of a Warm Footbath:
A warm footbath (WFB) has a temperature range between 92 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit. A WFB can improve blood flow in the coronary arteries in individuals with mild to moderate coronary artery disease.2 Hot or warm footbaths are useful in cases of insomnia. Several studies suggests that when the feet are warmed before retiring to bed, a person falls asleep faster and the sleep is deeper.3 This could be very helpful for the anemic patient who has insomnia. A warm footbath can improve the sleep of those who have the chronic phase traumatic brain injury.4)
Contraindications for HFB:
- Circulatory disturbances, peripheral arterial disease
- Impaired sensation (neuropathy)
- Blood vessel disorders
- Swelling in feet and legs
- Varicose veins
- Skin rashes on legs
- Rheumatoid or gouty arthritis in the feet when the joints are “hot” and swollen
Note: Warm foot baths can be tolerated by most diabetic individuals. If there are good foot pulses present, diabetic individuals can usually tolerate a 102°F foot bath.
- Water bath thermometer
- Plastic “sheet” (or try a clean large trash bag)
- Foot tub with hot water in it. A five gallon galvanized bucket is ideal.
- Bath towel
- Pitcher with hot water
- Small pitcher
- Basin of ice water and two washcloths
- A hand towel
- It is so much easier to give this treatment in the kitchen or bathroom where running water is available.
- Be sure the room is warm and draft free. If the room is cool, the effectiveness of a HFB is compromised.
- Adding epsom salts to the hot water could help relieve sore feet even more.
- Adding two teaspoons of mustard powder or 1 teaspoon of powdered ginger per two gallons of water will increase the vasodilation effect of the HFB. (4)
- A short cold footbath (five minutes) can reduce uterine bleeding.
- Giving a hot herbal tea before the treatment will help raise the temperature. This would be important if the HFB is given to stimulate the immune system.
Procedure for Hot Foot Bath:
- Cover the bed mattress with plastic sheet under the bottom sheet to protect the bed.
- Have patient undress and lie down on the bed, covering patient with sheet and blanket. Please keep patient modest at all times.
- Fill foot tub ¼ full of water at 103-104 degrees F. For individuals without diabetes, neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, the water temperature is gradually increased to 110 degrees F. You may fill tub before patient comes for treatment or while patient is getting undressed.
- Place patient’s feet in tub. See that edge of tub does not touch calves of the patient’s legs. Be sure to drape a sheet over the legs in the tub to keep out drafts. Don’t let sheet dip into the water.
- Apply cold compress to patient’s head once the person begins to sweat or gets hot. Renew compress approximately every 2-3 minutes.
- Have patient put one foot upon the other, moving the feet to one side of tub. Pour in hot water carefully while mixing with your hand, making it hotter to patient’s tolerance or per doctor’s orders. Add hot water gradually until the temperature is 110 to 115 degrees F. Always keep one of patient’s feet in the tub so they may tell you when water is hot enough. You might need to remove some of the “old water” with a small pitcher before adding more water.
- Finish the treatment by pouring cold water over feet and dry feet thoroughly. Or, you may dry the feet without the cold water pour if you immediately place socks on the dried feet. If sweating has occurred, patient should dry off completely.
- Have the patient rest in bed for 20-30 minutes. While resting in bed, patient should be covered with a blanket to keep warm.
- However, if the patient is still perspiring after he has rested, cool him down with an alcohol rub or a tepid shower. If the patient is weak, you will need to help him dry off.
- Please note: If one is just giving the hot footbath for other purposes than for stimulating the immune system, blankets are not needed.